iConnect

CEDAR leads the evaluation work package of iConnect (Impact of COnstructing Non-motorised Networks and Evaluating Changes in Travel).

This study aims to measure and evaluate the changes in travel, physical activity and carbon emissions related to Sustrans’ Connect2 programme, a UK-wide project to transform local travel in 79 communities by creating new crossings and bridges to overcome barriers such as busy roads, rivers and railways, giving people easier and healthier access to their schools, shops, parks and countryside.

The five-year iConnect study started in May 2008 and involves a broad evaluation of the whole programme coupled with detailed investigations at five specific sites. The study hopes to determine if the new routes have meant that more people have switched from using their cars to walking or cycling.

iConnect: Travel to School

CEDAR also leads the detailed case study of one of the five iConnect study sites in Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, where a new footbridge across a main road and an associated traffic-free walking and cycling route were constructed to create a link to a newly relocated secondary school.

A cohort study of students in years 7-10 (at baseline) was embedded within a repeat cross-sectional study of the whole school. Baseline data were collected in spring 2010 and follow-up data in spring 2011, after the school had been relocated and the Connect2 scheme completed. All participating students completed questionnaires about their travel and physical activity patterns and their attitudes to walking and cycling for transport. Students in the cohort arm of the study also wore a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and an Actigraph accelerometer for five days on each occasion.

Full list of study publications to date

  • Panter J, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Can environmental improvement change the population distribution of walking? J Epidemiol Community Health 
  • Song Y, Preston J, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. New walking and cycling infrastructure and modal shift in the UK: a quasi-experimental panel study. Transport Res A 2017; 95: 320-333. [PubMed]
  • Panter J, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Theorising and testing environmental pathways to behaviour change: natural experimental study of the perception and use of new infrastructure to promote walking and cycling in local communities. BMJ Open 2015; 5: e007593. [PubMed]
  • Sahlqvist S, Goodman A, Jones T, Powell J, Song Y, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Mechanisms underpinning use of new walking and cycling infrastructure in different contexts: mixed-method analysis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2015; 12: 24. [PubMed]
  • Adams E, Goad M, Sahlqvist S, Bull F, Cooper A, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Reliability and validity of the Transport and Physical Activity Questionnaire (TPAQ) for assessing physical activity behaviour. PLoS ONE 2014; 9: e107039. [PubMed]
  • Goodman A, Sahlqvist S, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. New walking and cycling routes and increased physical activity: one- and two-year findings from the UK iConnect study. Am J Public Health 2014; 104: e38-e46. [PubMed]
  • Brand C, Goodman A, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Evaluating the impacts of new walking and cycling infrastructure on carbon dioxide emissions from motorized travel: a controlled longitudinal study. Appl Energy 2014; 128: 284–295. [ScienceDirect]
  • Goodman A, Sahlqvist S, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Who uses new walking and cycling infrastructure and how? Longitudinal results from the UK iConnect study. Prev Med 2013; 57: 518–524. [PubMed]
  • Adams E, Goodman A, Sahlqvist S, Bull F, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Correlates of walking and cycling for transport and recreation: factor structure, reliability and behavioural associations of the perceptions of the environment in the neighbourhood scale (PENS). Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2013; 10: 87. [PubMed]
  • Bird E, Baker G, Mutrie N, Ogilvie D, Sahlqvist S, Powell J, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Behavior change techniques used to promote walking and cycling: a systematic review. Health Psychol 2013; 32: 829-38. [PubMed]
  • Sahlqvist S, Goodman A, Cooper A, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Change in active travel and changes in recreational and total physical activity in adults: longitudinal findings from the iConnect study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2013; 10: 28. [PubMed]
  • Brand C, Goodman A, Rutter H, Song Y, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon emissions from motorised passenger travel. Appl Energy 2013; 104: 158-169. [ScienceDirect]
  • Song Y, Preston J, Brand C. What explains active travel behaviour? Evidence from case studies in the UK. Environ Plann A 2013; 45: 2980-2998. [Pion]
  • Sahlqvist S, Song Y, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Is active travel associated with greater physical activity? The contribution of commuting and non-commuting active travel to overall physical activity in adults. Prev Med 2012; 55: 206-211. [PubMed]
  • Goodman A, Brand C, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study. Environ Health 2012; 11: 52. [PubMed]
  • Ogilvie D, Bull F, Cooper A, Rutter H, Adams E, Brand C, Ghali K, Jones T, Mutrie N, Powell J, Preston J, Sahlqvist S, Song Y, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Evaluating the travel, physical activity and carbon impacts of a ‘natural experiment’ in the provision of new walking and cycling infrastructure: methods for the core module of the iConnect study. BMJ Open 2012; 2: e000694. [PubMed]
  • Sahlqvist S, Song Y, Bull F, Adams E, Preston J, Ogilvie D, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. Effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on response rate to a complex postal survey: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Med Res Methodol 2011; 11: 62. [PubMed]
  • Ogilvie D, Bull F, Powell J, Cooper A, Brand C, Mutrie N, Preston J, Rutter H, on behalf of the iConnect consortium. An applied ecological framework for evaluating infrastructure to promote walking and cycling: the iConnect study. Am J Public Health 2011; 101: 473–481. [PubMed]

 

CEDAR researchers, students and staff involved in iConnect

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